The Citrix NetScaler appliance is an amazingly flexible application delivery controller (ADC). It’s capable of performing both simple and very complex tasks, positioning it solidly for the eighth consecutive year in the Gartner Leaders Quadrant for ADC’s: http://www.citrix.com/news/announcements/oct-2014/citrix-positioned-for-the-eighth-consecutive-year-in-the-leaders.html
Unlike many networking devices the NetScaler uses ‘floating’ IP addresses, which means that any NetScaler-owned IP address can egress any NetScaler interface with the generic default ‘vanilla’ configuration in place.
This may actually be the desired configuration, but if there is a need to ensure that ingress and egress traffic flows out one particular interface on the NetScaler, this can simply be configured by using layer three (L3) VLAN’s to bind IP subnets to specific interfaces. With L3 VLAN’s configured, all traffic destined for a particular network/subnet will be forced out the desired interface.
Note: VLAN’s are actually layer two constructs, but the term L3 VLAN is used to describe the VLAN-to-IP subnet binding occurring.
How Does This All Work?
By default all interfaces are members of Native VLAN 1. That being said, specific to RX and TX, there are a few different rules to understand.
Below shows the structure of a VLAN packet:
Let’s add a new VLAN to the NetScaler (VLAN 10). This new VLAN is created with the following command: ‘add vlan 10’
Then let’s bind interface 10/1 to the newly created VLAN 10 natively. This is accomplished with the following command: ‘bind vlan 10 -ifnum 10/1’
When bound natively, interface 10/1 is removed automatically from VLAN 1, the current native VLAN. It is then added to VLAN 10. When this configuration is implemented the following rules will then apply:
Let’s add a tagged VLAN to the NetScaler (VLAN 30). This new VLAN is created with the following command: ‘add vlan 30’
Then let’s bind interface 10/2 to the newly created VLAN 30 as a tagged member. This is accomplished with the following command: ‘bind vlan 30 -ifnum 10/2 –tagged’
When VLAN 30 is bound as a tagged member of interface 10/2, it is kept in VLAN 1 as a native member, but also added to VLAN 30 as a tagged member. When this configuration is implemented the following rules will then apply.
- An interface can have only one (hence also referred to as ‘port based’) Native VLAN.
- Untagged packets arriving on an interface are assumed to have arrived on that Native VLAN.
- An interface can be part of any number of tagged VLANs.
- When an interface is bound to a VLAN Natively, its Native VLAN changes from the current one to new one.
- When an interface is bound to a particular VLAN as a tagged member, it’s just added to the new VLAN as a tagged member.
An overview of the rules are as follows:
The Interface TAGALL Configuration
The TAGALL configuration on the NetScaler is specific only to the interface. The following rules apply when leveraging the TAGALL feature:
Link Aggregation (LA)
Let’s create a new link aggregation channel. This new LA channel is created with the following command: ‘add channel LA/1’
Then let’s bind interfaces 10/1 and 10/2 to the newly created channel with the following command: ‘bind channel LA/1 -ifnum 10/1 10/2’
Then following rules will apply for the default LA channel:
Link Aggregation (LA) and VLANs
Let’s create a new link aggregation channel (LA/2). This new LA channel is created with the following command: ‘add channel LA/2’
Then let’s bind interfaces 10/1 and 10/2 to the newly created channel with the following command: bind channel LA/2 -ifnum 10/1 10/2’ (as referenced previously the VLAN bindings of 10/1 and 10/2 are lost once they are part of an LA channel – unless specifically configured as such as we’ll see in the following example).
We can bind the new LA channel to a new VLAN with the following commands: ‘add vlan 2’ and then ‘bind vlan 2 –ifnum LA/2’
- If we unbind interfaces 10/1 and 10/2 (for example) from an LA channel (e.g. ‘unbind channel LA/1 -ifnum 10/1 10/2’) and then remove the channel with the following command: ‘rm channel LA/1’, then interfaces 10/1 and 10/2 will be moved to VLAN 1 as Native members again.
- The NetScaler does not have the concept of “trunk ports”, which by default will accept all VLAN IDs and only accept tagged traffic. Further restrictions on which VLANs to accept can be controlled by configuring an ‘allowed list’ of VLAN IDs on a particular interface.
How to Associate an IP Subnet with a NetScaler Interface by Using VLANs: http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX136926
How to Restrict the Management Access to a NetScaler Appliance from a Specific Interface: http://support.citrix.com/article/CTX126038